Health and environmental policies associated with low fatality rate of Covid-19
Abstract. The statistical evidence of the study here shows that countries with a low average COVID-19 fatality rate have high expenditures in health sector and a lower exposure of population to air pollution, regardless a higher percentage of population aged more than 65 years. This study suggest that the negative impact of future pandemics driven by novel viral agents can be reduced with long-run policies directed to support healthcare sector and sustainable environment.
Keywords. COVID-19, Fatality rates, Health policy, Air pollution, Sustainability, Crisis management, Policy responses; Preparedness.JEL. F21, F68, O53, K23.
Ahmed, A., Haque T., & Rahman M.M. (2020).Lifestyle acquired immunity, decentralized intelligent infrastructures, and revised healthcare expenditures may limit pandemic catastrophe: A lesson from COVID-19. Frontiers in Public Health. 8, 566114.
Aljerf, L., & Aljurf, M. (2020). Improvements in the ecological and nutritional aspects of down's syndrome. Preprints 2020, 2020050512. doi. 10.21203/rs.3.rs-30313/v1
Amoatey, P., Sicard, P., De Marco, A., & Khaniabadi, Y.O., (2020). Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and impacts on health in Rome, Italy. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 8(2), 531–535. doi. 10.1016/j.cegh.2019.11.009
Anser M.K., Yousaf Z., Khan M.A., Voo X.H., Nassani A.A., Alotaibi S.M., Abro M., & Zaman K. (2020). The impacts of COVID-19 measures on global environment and fertility rate: double coincidence. Air quality, atmosphere, & health, 1–10. Advance online publication. doi. 10.1007/s11869-020-00865-z
Antony, S. J., Almaghlouth, N. K., Heydemann, E. L. (2020). Are coinfections with COVID-19 and influenza low or underreported? An observational study examining current published literature including three new unpublished cases. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(11), 2489–2497. doi. 10.1002/jmv.26167
Ardito L., Coccia M., & Messeni-Petruzzelli A. (2021). Technological exaptation and crisis management: Evidence from COVID-19 outbreaks. R&D Management, doi. 10.1111/radm.12455
Asirvatham E.S., Lakshmanan J., Sarman C.J., & Joy M. (2020). Demystifying the varying case fatality rates (CFR) of COVID-19 in India: Lessons learned and future directions. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 14(10), 1128-1135
Atalan A. (2020). Is the lockdown important to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic? Effects on psychology, environment and economy-perspective. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 56, 38-42 doi. 10.1016/j.amsu.2020.06.010
Balmford B., Annan J.D., Hargreaves J.C. (2020). Cross-country comparisons of Covid-19: Policy, politics and the price of life. Environ Resource Econ, 76, 525–551. doi. 10.1007/s10640-020-00466-5
Barrera-Algarín, E., Estepa-Maestre, F., Sarasola-Sánchez-Serrano, J.L., & Vallejo-Andrada, A. (2020). COVID-19, neoliberalism and health systems in 30 European countries: relationship to deceases. Revista Espanola de Salud Publica, 94
Carugno M., Dentali F., Mathieu G., Fontanella A., Mariani J., Bordini L., Milani G.P., Consonni D., Bonzini M., Bollati V., & Pesatori A.C. (2018). PM10 exposure is associated with increased hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis among infants in Lombardy, Italy, Environmental Research, 166(2018) 452–457. doi. 10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.016
CDC, (2021). About Variants of the Virus that Causes COVID-19. Accessed 4 March 2021. [Retrieved from].
Chang S., Pierson E., & Koh P.W. (2020). Mobility network models of COVID-19 explain inequities and inform reopening. Nature. doi. 10.1038/s41586-020-2923-3
Chaudhry R., Dranitsaris G., Mubashir T., Bartoszko J., & Riazi S. (2020). A country level analysis measuring the impact of government actions, country preparedness and socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 mortality and related health outcomes. Eclinicalmedicine. 100464. doi. 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100464
Cohen-Mansfield, J. (2020). COVID-19 and older adults in Israel – common challenges and recommendations. Quality in Ageing and Older Adults , 21(4), 209-216.
Copat C., Cristaldi A., Fiore M., Conti G.O., & Ferrante M. (2020). The role of air pollution (PM and NO2) in COVID-19 spread and lethality: A systematic review. Environmental Research, 191, 110129.
DeRoo Schaffer S., Pudalov N.J., & Fu L.Y. 2020. Planning for a COVID-19 Vaccination Program. JAMA, 323(24), 2458–2459. doi. 10.1001/jama.2020.8711
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2021). Risk factors and risk groups. accessed 4 January 2021. [Retrieved from].
Evans S., & Bahrami H. (2020). Super-flexibility in practice: Insights from a crisis. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 21(3), 207-214
Flaxman S., Mishra S., Gandy A., Unwin H.J.T., Mellan T.A., Coupland H., & Bhatt, S. (2020). Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe. Nature. doi. 10.1038/s41586-020-2405-7
Frederiksen L., Zhang Y., Foged C., Thakur A. 2020. The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 1817. doi. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01817
Gaffney A., Himmelstein D.U., & Woolhandler S. (2020). COVID-19 and US Health Financing: Perils and Possibilities. International Journal of Health Services. 50(4), 396-407
Gatto M., Bertuzzo E., Mari L., Miccoli S., Carraro L., Casagrandi R., & Rinaldo A. (2020). Spread and dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy: effects of emergency containment measures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(19), 10484–10491. doi. 10.1073/pnas.2004978117
Glencross Drew A., Tzer-Ren Ho, Nuria Camina, Hawrylowicz Catherine M., Pfeffer P.E. (2020). Air pollution and its effects on the immune system, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, in press. doi. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.179
González-Bustamante, B. (2021). Evolution and early government responses to COVID-19 in South America. World Development, 137, 105180.
Guo L., Luo J., Yuan M., Huang Y., Shen H., Li T. (2019). The influence of urban planning factors on PM2.5 pollution exposure and implications: A case study in China based on remote sensing, LBS, and GIS data. Science of The Total Environment, 659, 1585-1596. doi. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.448
Harrison E. A., Wu J.W. (2020). Vaccine confidence in the time of COVID-19. European Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), 325–330. doi. 10.1007/s10654-020-00634-3
Hu J, Li C, Wang S, Li T, Zhang H. (2021). Genetic variants are identified to increase risk of COVID-19 related mortality from UK Biobank data. Human Genomics, 15(1), 10. doi. 10.1186/s40246-021-00306-7
ISS, (2020). Epidemia COVID-19. Aggiornamento nazionale, 2 dicembre 2020 –ore 11:00, data pubblicazione: 4 dicembre 2020. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma (Italy). Accessed 4 January 2021. [Retrieved from].
Iyanda A.E., Adeleke R., Lu Y., Chima-Adaralegbe N.J., Osundina A.M. (2020). A retrospective cross-national examination of COVID-19 outbreak in 175 countries: a multiscale geographically weighted regression analysis (January 11-June 28, 2020). Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(10), 1438-1445
Janssen M., van der Voort H. (2020). Agile and adaptive governance in crisis response: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Information Management, 55, Article number 102180.
Jin H., Qian X. (2020). How the Chinese government has done with public health from the perspective of the evaluation and comparison about public-health expenditure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 9272, 1-16
Johns Hopkins Center for System Science and Engineering, (2021). Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases. accessed in 4 January. [Retrieved from].
Kapitsinis N. (2020). The underlying factors of the COVID-19 spatially uneven spread. Initial evidence from regions in nine EU countries. Regional Science Policy and Practice, 12(6), 1027-1045.
Kavitha C., Madhavaprasad D. (2020). The trajectory of corona virus: Covid 19 around the world. Disaster Advances,13(10), 98.
Lau H., Khosrawipour T., Kocbach P., Ichii H., Bania J., Khosrawipour V. (2021). Evaluating the massive underreporting and undertesting of COVID-19 cases in multiple global epicenters. Pulmonology, 27(2), 110–115. doi. 10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.05.015
Liu, Z., Magal, P., & Webb, G. (2021). Predicting the number of reported and unreported cases for the COVID-19 epidemics in China, South Korea, Italy, France, Germany and United Kingdom. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 509, 110501. doi. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110501
Marazziti, D., Cianconi, P., Mucci, F., Foresi, L., Chiarantini, I., Della Vecchia, A. 2021. Climate change, environment pollution, COVID-19 pandemic and mental health. The Science of the Total Environment, 773, 145182. doi. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145182
Martelletti L., Martelletti P., (2020). Air pollution and the novel covid-19 disease: a putative disease risk factor. Sn compr. Clin. Med. 1–5. doi. 10.1007/s42399-020-00274-4
Perone G.2021. The determinants of COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) in the Italian regions and provinces: An analysis of environmental, demographic, and healthcare factors. Science of the Total Environment, 755, 142523.
Prem K., Liu Y., Russell T.W., Kucharski A.J., Eggo R.M., Davies N. (2020). The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study, The Lancet Public Health, March 25, 2020. doi. 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-6
Reilly J.M., Y.-H.H. Chen, H.D. Jacoby (2021). The Covid-19 effect on the Paris Agreement. Humanities & Social Sciences Communications, 8(16) doi. 10.1057/s41599-020-00698-2
Renardy M., Eisenberg M., Kirschner D. (2020). Predicting the second wave of COVID-19 in Washtenaw County, MI, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 507(21), Article number 110461. doi. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110461
Rosario Denes K.A., Mutz Yhan S., Bernardes Patricia C., Conte-Junior Carlos A., (2020). Relationship between COVID-19 and weather: Case study in a tropical country. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 229, 113587.
Sabat I., Neuman-Böhme S., Varghese N. E., Barros, P. P., Brouwer, W., van Exel, J., Schreyögg, J., & Stargardt, T. (2020). United but divided: Policy responses and people's perceptions in the EU during the COVID-19 outbreak. Health Policy, 124(9), 909–918. doi. 10.1016/j.healthpol.2020.06.009
Seligman B, Ferranna M, Bloom DE (2021). Social determinants of mortality from COVID-19: A simulation study using NHANES. PLoS Med 18(1), e1003490. doi. 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003490
Siafakas N., Bizymi N., Mathioudakis A., Corlateanu A. 2018. EARLY versus MILD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Respiratory Medicine, 140, 127–131. doi. 10.1016/j.rmed.2018.06.007
Siddiqui A.F., Wiederkehr M., Rozanova L., Flahault A. (2020).Situation of India in the COVID-19 pandemic: India’s initial pandemic experience. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23), 8994, 1-18.
Simon J., Helter T. M., White R. G., van der Boor C., Łaszewska A. (2021). Impacts of the Covid-19 lockdown and relevant vulnerabilities on capability well-being, mental health and social support: an Austrian survey study. BMC public health, 21(1), 314. doi. 10.1186/s12889-021-10351-5
Stribling J., Clifton A., McGill G., de Vries K. (2020). Examining the UK Covid-19 mortality paradox: Pandemic preparedness, healthcare expenditure, and the nursing workforce. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(12), 3218-3227.
Tian, T., Zhang, J., Hu, L., Jiang, Y., Duan, C., Li, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, H. (2021). Risk factors associated with mortality of COVID-19 in 3125 counties of the United States. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 10(1), 3. doi. 10.1186/s40249-020-00786-0
Tobías A. (2020). Evaluation of the lockdowns for the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Italy and Spain after one month follow up. Sci Total Environ. 725, 138539. doi. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138539
World Bank (2020). World Development Indicators database. GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). License: CC BY-4.0. Accessed 20 December 2020). [Retrieved from].
World Bank (2020a). World Health Organization Global Health Expenditure database. Domestic general government health expenditure (% of GDP). License: CC BY-4.0. Accessed 20 December 2020. [Retrieved from].
World Bank (2020b). World Health Organization Global Health Expenditure database. Domestic general government health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $).. Accessed 20 December 2020. [Retrieved from].
World Bank (2020c). World Bank staff estimates based on age/sex distributions of United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision. Population ages 65 and above (% of total population. Accessed 20 December 2020. [Retrieved from].
World Bank (2020d). PM2.5 air pollution, population exposed to levels exceeding WHO guideline value (% of total). In Brauer, M. et al. 2017, for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Accessed 20 December 2020. [Retrieved from].
- There are currently no refbacks.
Journal of Economics Bibliography - J. Econ. Bib. - JEB - www.kspjournals.org
Copyright © KSP Library